Economic activities

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The following country report begins with an overview of coastal livelihoods in Comoros, which provides a concise overview of the seven sector reports and the findings of the in-country and regional consultants. This overview ends with a conclusion which summarizes the collected information as it relates to the coastal zone in Comoros in general.

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This Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) has been developed jointly by the ASCLME and SWIOF Projects in 2012 and is the regional synthesis report on the current status of the Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems. It presents an analysis of the ecosystem status and the threats to the long term sustainability of coastal and marine processes and resources in the region.

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Given the importance of the marine ecosystem, the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) countries with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) participated in the implementation of the Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem (ASCLME) project. This project involved generation of data and information that can be used for the protection and sustainable management of coastal and marine resources of the WIO sub region.

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The Kenya National Marine Ecosystem Diagnostic Analysis (MEDA) was prepared by coastal and marine experts in Kenya. The MEDA presents essential data and information relating to the dynamic biophysical and socio-economic processes in Kenya that define the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). It also identifies areas of concern that will feed into the Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses (TDA) and the Strategic Action Programme (SAP) for the Agulhas and Somali Current LME.

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The ASCLME Project is approaching the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and Strategic Action Plan process initially at the country level through a national Marine Ecosystem Diagnostic Analysis (MEDA) The MEDA captures essential data and information relating to the coastal and marine environment and identifies areas of concern that will feed into the Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses (TDAs) and the Strategic Action Programme (SAP) for the Western Indian Ocean.

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The Republic of Mauritius consists of the main island of Mauritius and several outlying islands namely, Rodrigues, Agalega, St. Brandon, Tromelin and Chagos Archipelago. The total land area of Mauritius is 2040 km2 the while the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is about 2 million km2. Mauritius has at different periods been a colony of the Dutch, French and British. Effective Dutch Colonisation of the island started in 1598 and ended in 1710.

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Mozambique is located in the South-Eastern part of the African Continent, between latitudes 10°27’S and 26°52’S and longitudes 30º 12’E and 40º 51’E. The country has a total surface area of 784,032 km2 subdivided into 10 provinces. The country possesses the third longest coastline in the Indian Ocean covering a total distance of 2700 km. Total continental shelf area is about 104,300 km2 . The current population is slightly more than 20 million people with a growth rate of 2.5% per annum.

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The Marine Ecosystem Diagnostic Analysis (MEDA) for Seychelles presents an analysis of the status of the coastal and marine resources. It identifies the status of the biophysical and human environment including challenges in the management of the coastal and marine environment. The Seychelles archipelago is made up of 115 islands which are located between latitudes 4–11°S and 45–56°E.

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The Republic of Somalia, located in the Horn of Africa, covers a total surface area of 637,657 km2 with an estimated population of 10 million people from six (6) major clans and various minor clans. The country has been without a central Government since 1991. Years of political instability and war have resulted in over 1 million deaths, both as a direct result of the fighting and due to the country’s inability to cope with recurrent droughts, devastating floods and diseases.