2012

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The Republic of Somalia, located in the Horn of Africa, covers a total surface area of 637,657 km2 with an estimated population of 10 million people from six (6) major clans and various minor clans. The country has been without a central Government since 1991. Years of political instability and war have resulted in over 1 million deaths, both as a direct result of the fighting and due to the country’s inability to cope with recurrent droughts, devastating floods and diseases.

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South Africa has an extensive coastline in the southern section of Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem (ASCLME) region, with the coastal provinces of KwaZulu Natal (KZN), Eastern Cape and Western Cape forming the seaboard. The southeast coastline is remarkably linear, with a narrow continental shelf descending to an abyss (deeper than 4,500 m) in the southern Transkei Basin.

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Data and information for this report was compiled by Engagement Communautaire pour Developpement  Durable  (ECDD);  Bristol  Conservation  and  Science  Foundation’s (BCSF) with support from BirdLife International project in the Comoros working in partnership with Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust (Durrell).

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Tanzania is located on the East coast of Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, and lies between Kenya to the north and Mozambique to the south. Its total area is 945,087 km2 and this includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba and Zanzibar. Water covers 59,050 km2 of this area and the coastline along the Indian Ocean is 1,424 km. The population of the country is 40 million with a growth rate of 2.6%. The economy is largely dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 48% of the GDP.

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Madagascar has expressed its concerns about the precious richness of the marine and coastal area by ratifying the ʺNairobi Conventionʺ in 2001. Madagascar has important marine and coastal biodiversity.  It has important concentrations of threatened coastal and marine birds. The coast of Madagascar plays an important role in the life cycle of several migratory birds, and is the end destination for many migratory shorebirds. Many bird species are endemic and resident to the coastal area of Madagascar.

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This Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) has been developed jointly by the ASCLME and SWIOF Projects in 2012 and is the regional synthesis report on the current status of the Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems. It presents an analysis of the ecosystem status and the threats to the long term sustainability of coastal and marine processes and resources in the region.

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The seventh Conference of the Parties to the Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean was held in Mozambique from 10 - 14 December 2012, in Maputo, Mozambique.
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This Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) has been developed jointly by the ASCLME and SWIOF Projects in 2012 and is the regional synthesis report on the current status of the Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems. It presents an analysis of the ecosystem status and the threats to the long term sustainability of coastal and marine processes and resources in the region.

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Africa’s inland waters, oceans and seas are under pressure. Over the years, traditional maritime activities, such as shipping or fisheries have intensified, while new ones, such as aquaculture or offshore renewable energy, emerged. However, the rise in intensity of activities at sea is taking place against the backdrop of insecurity, various forms of illegal trafficking, degradation of the marine environment, falling biodiversity and aggravated effects of climate change.