The United Republic of Tanzania includes the Indian Ocean islands of Pemba and Zanzibar and the mainland territory, covering a total area of 1,0219,090 km², and is located on the east coast of Africa between the great lakes of the African Rift Valley system in the central part of the continent and the Indian Ocean.

Tanganyika became a Sovereign State on 9th December 1961 and a Republic in 1962. Zanzibar became independent on 19th December 1963 as a constitutional monarchy under the sultan and the People’s Republic of Zanzibar was established after the Revolution of 12th January 1964. The two Sovereign States formed the United Republic of Tanzania on 26th April 1964.

The United Republic of Tanzania is a nation in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The country’s eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.


Threatened species      (2014):            979     

Forested area (% of land area)           (2012):            36.8    

Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected (%)      (2014):            26.1    

Population using improved drinking water sources (%)        (2012):            53.0    

Population using improved sanitation facilities (%)   (2012):            12.0    

CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita)          (2011):            7301/0.2        

Energy supply per capita (Gigajoules)            (2012):            20.0

Land use: agricultural land: 43.7%; arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%; forest: 37.3%; other: 19% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,840 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 96.27 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%); per capita: 144.7 cu m/yr (2002)

Economic indicators

GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$)        (2013):  44698   Excluding Zanzibar.

Social  indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %)         (2010-2015):      3.0        Including Zanzibar. 

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)            (2010-2015):      5.4        Including Zanzibar. 

Rural population growth rate (average annual %) (2010-2015):      2.0        Including Zanzibar.  


  1. United Republic of Tanzania Portal
  2. UN Data
  3. United Nations Statistics Division