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The Seychelles is an archipelago consisting of 115 granite and coral islands that occupy a land area of 445 sq. km within an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 1.3 million sq. km in the South Western Indian Ocean between 4 and 9 degrees south of the equator.

The country’s population is currently estimated at around 87,300 (2010).1 Approximately 90% of the population and infrastructure is located on the main island of Mahe. The country has a per capita income of around US$ 7,000. Tourism, fisheries and a growing industrial sector dominate the economy of the country.

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Madagascar is the fourth biggest island in the world and among the 17 countries agreed as “megadiversity”. Madagascar hosts a unique, highly endemic collection of flora and fauna due to hundreds of millions of years of tectonic isolation. Madagascar, part of the third largest coral reef system in the world belonging to the 32nd poorest country in the world, with a population that is more than eighty percent agrarian, limiting resource use for environmental goals is economically devastating - at least in the short term - to a significant percentage of the national population.

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The objective of this report is to assess and make recommendations on the sustainable management of South Africa’s marine and coastal resources in the context of other countries in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) region.

More specifically the report seeks to outline and assess the application of an Ecosystem Based Approach (EBA) and Living Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for the sustainable management of such resources with a view to benefitting the people and alleviating poverty in the region. More specifically the terms of reference are to:

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Mozambique, bathed by the Indian Ocean in its entire eastern side, is located in SouthEast Africa, between the parallels 10°27’S and 26°52’S. It is limited by Tanzania and Malawi, in its northern part; by Zambia and Zimbabwe, on the western side; and by Swaziland and South Africa, in its south-western and southern parts.

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This report describes the Policy and Governance Assessment done for the Coastal and Marine Resources sectors within the framework of Large Marine Ecosystems for the Agulhas and Somali Current in Tanzania. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter introduces Tanzania with its geographical settings, administrative set up and the existing governance system for managing the coastal and marine resources and environment. It also present the methodology used for this assessment.

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The Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem (ASCLME) Project is a UNDP/GEF regional project covering nine countries in the Western Indian Ocean which include: Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa and Tanzania all of which following the UNCLOS (1982), have proclaimed their ocean ward extents to the 200 nautical mile limit of their Exclusive Economic Zones. The proclamation gives the countries jurisdictional powers over the governance of the natural resources in these LMEs as provided by UNCLOS (1982).

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Les Comores constituent un archipel de l’Océan Indien, composé de quatre îles situées entre Madagascar et la Côte Est du continent Africain ; il s’agit de la Grande Comore(Ngazidja), Anjouan(Ndzouani), de Mohéli (Moili) et de Mayotte (Maoré). Pour l’ensemble, la superficie est estimée à 2237 Km² et la population à quelques 700 000 habitants.

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The Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems (ASCLME) is one of the 66 identified Large Marine Ecosystems of the world. The countries of the ASCLME region benefit from the goods and services supported by the ASCLME. Coastal and marine ecosystem goods and services play a crucial role in supporting the livelihoods of the people and national economies that use this ecosystem. Yet, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) reports that these ecosystems are deteriorating worldwide, and with them the capacity to support human well-being.

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Marine and coastal ecosystems are characterized by their biodiversity richness and have crucial ecosystem goods and services that highly contribute to livelihood of people and economic development of a nation.  Various sectors that link to marine and coastal ecosystems services such as fisheries, tourism, marine transportation, oil production,… are important for economic development for a given country. Unfortunately marine resources are threatened by various human pressures and natural catastrophe such as overfishing, pollution, and climate change.

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The purpose and overall objective of this project is to calculate the total economic value of the marine and coastal resources in both Mozambique and South Africa and to assess the impacts of implementing a sustainable use policy for the region. These individual country reports on the value of the coastal and marine resources will be collated with the various other country assessments of the same nature to create a single ASCLME regional report.